On February 5, 2016, Netflix renewed Orange Is the New Black for a sixth season. Filming began August 2017. The season was released on July 27, 2018. Despite Season One also releasing in July, and in contrast to Season Two to Season Five all being released in the month of June, this season has the latest release date.
- Taylor Schilling as Piper Chapman (13/13)
- Natasha Lyonne as Nicky Nichols (12/13)
- Uzo Aduba as Suzanne Warren (8/13)
- Danielle Brooks as Tasha Jefferson (11/13)
- Jackie Cruz as Marisol Gonzales (7/13)
- Laura Gómez as Blanca Flores (11/13)
- Selenis Leyva as Gloria Mendoza (13/13)
- Taryn Manning as Tiffany Doggett (8/13)
- Adrienne C. Moore as Cindy Hayes (10/13)
- Matt Peters as Joel Luschek (8/13)
- Jessica Pimentel as Maria Ruiz (10/13)
- Dascha Polanco as Dayanara Diaz (13/13)
- Elizabeth Rodriguez as Aleida Diaz (7/13)
- Nick Sandow as Joe Caputo (9/13)
- Dale Soules as Frieda Berlin (9/13)
- Yael Stone as Lorna Morello Muccio (8/13)
- Kate Mulgrew as Galina Reznikov (9/13)
- Laura Prepon as Alex Vause (9/13)
Special Guest Star
- Alysia Reiner as Natalie Figueroa
- Laverne Cox as Sophia Burset
- Daniella De Jesus as Zirconia (9/13)
- Nick Dillenburg as Ryder Blake
- Beth Dover as Linda Ferguson
- Hunter Emery as Rick Hopper
- James McMenamin as Charlie Coates
- Lori Petty as Lolly Whitehill
- Shannon Esper as Alana Dwight
- Amanda Fuller as Madison Murphy (12/13)
- Finnerty Steeves as Beth Hoefler
- Shawna Hamic as CO Copeland “Ginger” (13/13)
- Mandela Bellamy as Rosalie Deitlan
- Dana Berger as Crystal Tawney
- Michael J. Burg as Mark Bellamy
- Becca G.T. as Amy Roth
- Kana Hatakeyama as Charlene Teng
- Mike Houston as Lee Dixon
- Miguel Izaguirre as Diablo
- Rebecca Knox as Tina Swope
- Alice Kremelberg as Nicole Eckelcamp
- Jo Lampert as Marie Brock
- Naomi Lorrain as Kelly Lee Glenna
- Shirley Roeca as Vazquez
- Henny Russell as Carol Denning
- Mackenzie Phillips as Barbara Denning
- Susan Heyward as CO Ward
- Reema Sampat as Shruti Chambal
- Besanya Santiago as Raquel Munoz
- Emily Tarver as Artesian McCullough
- Christina Toth as Annalisa Damiva
- Alexander Wraith as Vasily Reznikov
- Vicci Martinez as Dominga Duarte
- Jenji Kohan: episode 1
- Brian Chamberlayne: episodes 2 and 13
- Hilary Weisman Graham: episodes 3 and 12
- Tami Sagher: episode 4
- Anthony Natoli: episodes 5 and 11
- Merritt Tierce: episode 6
- Heather Jeng Bladt: episode 7
- Vera Santamaria: episode 8
- Kirsa Rein: episode 9
- Carolina Paiz: episode 10
- Michael Trim: episode 1
- Mark A. Burley: episode 2
- Erin Feeley: episode 3
- Phil Abraham: episode 4
- Andrew McCarthy: episodes 5 and 7
- Constantine Makris: episode 6
- Sian Heder: episode 8
- Nick Sandow: episodes 9 and 13
- Ludovic Littee: episode 10
- Laura Prepon: episode 11
- Clark Johnson: episode 12
Each episode will have a focal character, and often more than one. These characters will have flashbacks and be a big part of the episode.
- A script page was leaked for episode 2  ("Shitstorm Coming"), revealing the title and details of Cindy Hayes' flashback as well another potential detail to the plot involving her character.
- Taystee was rumored to have another flashback after a Burger King (Hillside Ave and 255th St. Bellerose)  was spotted being transformed into a "Storky's", a diner where she used to work. This was confirmed to be true.
- Dale Soules, Laura Gómez, and Matt Peters were promoted to series regulars. 
- Lea DeLaria returns for just one episode and is credited as a "special guest star".
- Season Six completed principal photography on February 13th, 2018.
- Lolly, Alana Dwight, Zirconia, Big Boo, Skinhead Helen and Daya return to the show. Alison Abdullah does not appear this season despite her portrayer, Amanda Stephen, promoting the new season on her personal Instagram.
- Piper's window/swastika brand has moved from her left arm to her right arm.
- Piper, Alex, Cindy, Suzanne, Taystee, Gloria, Blanca, Frieda, Red and Nicky are alive after the SWAT breaking in. Pennsatucky runs away but then turns herself in and is returned to the system.
- This is the first season not to include several recurring characters from the last four and five seasons:
- Sam Healy, Lolly Whitehill, Crystal Burset and Cal Chapman return this season.
- Despite not making an appearance, Stella Carlin, Maritza Ramos, Mei Chang and Maureen Kukudio were mentioned: Carlin was either transferred or released, Flaca said Maritza was transferred to a prison 1500 miles away from Litchfield, according to Linda Ferguson, Chang was found hidden inside a deer's stomach and Kukudio died from her infection.
- Taslitz and Miss Claudette are supposed to be in maximum security (unless they died, got transferred or released) but make no appearance.
- The season's premiere date coincides with Taylor Schilling's (Piper's portrayer) 34th birthday.
- Maximum Security is extremely different to when Nicky was in it, her description of it has completely changed (saying she has 6 roommates) and the cells and cell blocks are very different than what is seen in season 4